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White multi multi White White multi eyelets multi eyelets eyelets multi White multi eyelets eyelets White
Locomoción animal

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Un equipo científico entrena a un ejemplar conocido como Kim para estudiar la capacidad de estos animales

El ejemplar estudiado alcanza distancias seis veces superiores a lo que mide su cuerpo y emplea una fuerza que equivale a cinco veces su peso


Kim puede saltar una distancia 6 veces superior a la longitud de su cuerpo (Mostafa Nabawy)

Un grupo de científicos de la Universidad de Manchester se ha servido de la tomografía 3D y de cámaras de alta velocidad y alta resolución para registrar, monitorear y analizar el movimiento y el comportamiento de Kim, una pequeña araña saltadora de la especie Phidippus regius.

Gracias a todo este arsenal tecnológico, los académicos han podido comprobar que el diminuto artrópodo, que mide 15 milímetros y pesa unos 150 miligramos, tiene una impresionante habilidad para saltar, pues puede alcanzar distancias de hasta 6 veces la longitud de su cuerpo. A diferencia de estos artrópodos, lo máximo que puede lograr un humano es saltar 1,5 veces la longitud de su cuerpo.

El hallazgo, que revela un artículo publicado este mes de mayo en la revista científica Scientific Reports, pone sobre la mesa pistas que podrían llevar a la comunidad científica a descubrir alguno los secretos más ocultos de estos depredadores. En este sentido, gracias e este trabajo, se sabe, por ejemplo, que la fuerza que emplean las arañas en sus saltos puede ser hasta 5 veces mayor que su peso.

Asimismo, el estudio denota que Kim, que ha sido entrenada por los científicos para saltar diferentes distancias tanto en el plano horizontal como en el vertical, utiliza su propia telaraña a la hora de saltar con el objetivo de estabilizarse y así optimizar el consumo de energía en cada salto, algo que nunca antes se había observado.

Potencial locomotor

Esta araña puede saltar una distancia equivalente a seis veces la longitud de su cuerpo

Dejando de lado el increíble potencial saltarín de esta araña, el trabajo busca comprender mejor la biomecánica del aparato locomotor de la araña en distintas situaciones. Así, si se trata de cazar a una presa, el diminuto animal volará bajo y veloz, algo que le supone un gran gasto de energía, pero le permite alimentarse y, por lo tanto, le compensa.

Además, el trabajo, que proporciona una descripción exacta de la disposición anatómica de las patas estas arañas, denota que estos artrópodos emplean un sistema hidráulico interno para extender los segmentos de sus extremidades y para impulsar a los músculos, diseñados exclusivamente para saltar.

Si bien la ingeniería actual no está aún a la altura de ello, los autores del trabajo apuntan que conocer la biomecánica de estas arañas puede ser de gran ayuda para la robótica, pues creen que su agilidad podría inspirar a este sector en la fabricación de una nueva generación de microrobots dotados de potentes músculos artificiales y sistemas hidráulicos de apoyo adyacentes.

Los expertos reconocen que queda mucho camino por recorrer en este campo, ya que la máquina locomotora de esta araña es prácticamente “perfecta”, pero están convencidos de que la complicidad que muestra el animal por los humanos puede facilitarles mucho la experimentación con ella.

Artículo científico de referencia:

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Mostafa R. A. Nabawy, Girupakaran Sivalingam, Russell J. Garwood, William J. Crowther and William I. Sellers. Energy and time optimal trajectories in exploratory jumps of the spider Phidippus regius. Scientific Reports, 2018. DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-25227-9

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